Languages & Origins in Europe

 

Cognate List for the Romance Family


 

 

List of 100 ‘Pan‑Romance’ Cognates for Phonetic Comparisons

 

 

 

Latin

English

 

 

Latin

English

01

aquam

water

 

51

-mente (abl.)

adverb suffix

02

arcum

bow

 

52

meum

mine  (masc. sg.)

03

asinum

donkey

 

53

mīlle

thousand

04

aurum

gold

 

54

nāvigat

navigates  (3rd sg.)

05

barbam

beard

 

55

nōn

no

06

battimus

hit  (1st sg.)

 

56

novem

nine

07

bēstiam

beast

 

57

novum

new

08

bonum

good

 

58

octō

eight

09

brācchium

arm

 

59

ōvum

egg

10

caelum

sky

 

60

palmam

palm

11

cal(i)dum

hot  (or noun ‘broth’)

 

61

pānem

bread

12

campum

field

 

62

partem

part

13

cantābam

sing  (3rd sg. impf.)

 

63

peccātum

sin

14

capram

goat

 

64

petram

stone

15

castellum

castle

 

65

plēnum

full

16

cervum

deer

 

66

portam

door

17

cornū

horn

 

67

portātis

carry  (2nd pl.)

18

crēdere

to believe  (infin.)

 

68

quālem

which

19

decem

ten

 

69

quando

when

20

dēntem

tooth

 

70

quattuor

four

21

deus

god

 

71

quīnque

five

22

dīcat

says  (3rd sg. subj.)

 

72

rapidum

fast

23

digitum

finger

 

73

rotam

wheel

24

dīrēctum

straight

 

74

sanguinem

blood

25

dormit

sleeps  (3rd sg.)

 

75

septem

seven

26

dulcis

sweet

 

76

septimānam

week

27

duo

two

 

77

servītis

serve  (2nd pl.)

28

dūrāre

to last

 

78

sex

six

29

est

is

 

79

spēret

hopes  (3rd sg. subj.)

30

faciō

do  (1st sg.)

 

80

stellam

star

31

fīlius

son

 

81

suam

his  (fem. sg.)

32

flōrem

flower

 

82

super

above, on

33

fortem

strong

 

83

tempus

time/weather

34

frūctum

fruit

 

84

tenet

holds  (3rd sg.)

35

gustānt

taste  (3rd pl.)

 

85

trēs

three

36

herbam

grass

 

86

trīstem

sad

37

hībernum

winter

 

87

thou

38

hōram

hour

 

88

tussim

cough

39

hospitem

guest / host

 

89

tuum

your  (masc. sg.)

40

inter

between

 

90

ūnum

one

41

intrāmus

enter  (1st pl.)

 

91

ursum

bear

42

iugum

yoke

 

92

vaccam

cow

43

lacrimam

tear

 

93

vecīnum

neighbour

44

lānam

wool

 

94

vendere

to sell

45

largum

broad

 

95

ventum

wind

46

lēgem

law

 

96

videō

see  (1st sg.)

47

lūnam

moon

 

97

viduam

widow

48

lupum

wolf

 

98

vīnum

wine

49

manum

hand

 

99

viridem

green

50

mare

sea

 

100

vostram

your  (fem. sg.)

 

Notes:    Classical Latin is given here as a reference, though of course the modern Romance languages actually derived from Vulgar Latin (this does not impact on the method and how it compares modern languages against each other, however). 

              Substantives are given in the accusative case, since it is from this that it is assumed that the modern words derived in most western Romance languages, though in any case the accusative ending ‑m was lost in all languages (as was any nominative ‑s).  This ensures that in the modern forms, this sound ‑m is not over‑represented in this cognate list as a phonetic sample of the languages. 

              Also to ensure a phonetically balanced sample, the substantives included in the list represent forms in all genders, while the verb forms span a range of different grammatical and morphological forms (moods, tenses and persons).