Languages & Origins in Europe

 

Cognate List for the Germanic Family

 

 

 

List of 110 ‘Pan‑Germanic’ Cognates for Phonetic Comparisons

 

 

 

English

Proto‑Germanic

 

 

English

Proto‑Germanic

001

all

*allaz

 

056

mother

*mōdēr

002

ash  (cinders)

*askōn

 

057

mouse

*mūsz

003

bath

*başan

 

058

mouth

*munşaz

004

better

*batizōn

 

059

nail

*naglaz

005

bite

*bītanan

 

060

naked

*nakwadaz ~ nakwedaz

006

blood

*blōdan

 

061

name

*namōn ~ nam(n)an

007

bone

*bainan

 

062

needle

*nēşlō

008

brother

*brōşēr

 

063

new

*neujaz

009

calf

*kalbaz

 

064

night

*naxtz

010

cold

*kaldaz

 

065

nine

*newun

011

corn

*kurnan

 

066

north

*nurşaz

012

cow

*kōwz ~ kūz

 

067

oak

*aikz

013

daughter

*duxtēr

 

068

one

*ainaz

014

day

*dagaz

 

069

open

*upanaz ~ upenaz

015

drink

*drenkanan

 

070

out

*ūt

016

ear

*auzōn

 

071

oven

*ufnaz

017

earth

*erşō

 

072

over

*uberi

018

eat

*etanan

 

073

quick

*kwikwaz

019

eight

*axtōu

 

074

rain

*regnan ~ regnaz

020

eye

*augōn

 

075

red

*raudaz

021

fast

*fastaz

 

076

right

*rextaz

022

father

*fadēr

 

077

ring

*xrengaz

023

fight

*fextanan

 

078

salt

*saltan

024

fish

*fiskaz

 

079

see

*sexwanan

025

five

*fenfe

 

080

seven

*sebun

026

foot

*fōtz ~ fōtus

 

081

sharp

*skarpaz

027

four

*fedwōrez

 

082

sit

*setjanan

028

full

*fullaz

 

083

six

*sexs

029

good

*gōdaz

 

084

snow

*snaigwaz

030

goose

*gansz

 

085

sore

*sairaz

031

green

*grōniz

 

086

stone

*stainaz

032

hand

*xanduz

 

087

stool

*stōlaz

033

head

*xaubadan ~ -idan

 

088

storm

*sturmaz

034

hear

*xauzjanan

 

089

swear

*swarjanan

035

heart

*xertōn

 

090

tear  (crying)

*taxru(z)

036

holy

*xailagaz

 

091

ten

*texun

037

home

*xaimaz ~ xaimiz

 

092

thing

*şengaz ~ şenxaz

038

honey

*hunagan

 

093

thorn

*şurnuz ~ şurnaz

039

horn

*xurnan

 

094

three

*şrejez

040

hound

*xundaz

 

095

thunder

*şunraz

041

house

*xūsan

 

096

toe

*taixwō(n)

042

hundred

*xunda-radan

 

097

tongue

*tungōn

043

hunger

*xungruz ~ xunxruz

 

098

tooth

*tanşz

044

I  (me)

*eka

 

099

top

*tuppaz

045

ice

*īsaz ~ īsan

 

100

two

*twō(u) ~ twajina-

046

in

*eni

 

101

warm

*warmaz

047

is

*esti

 

102

wash

*waskanan ~ waskōjanan

048

knee

*knewan

 

103

what

*xwat

049

lamb

*lambaz

 

104

white

*xwītaz

050

leaf

*lauban

 

105

wind  (weather)

*wendaz

051

liver

*lib(a)rō

 

106

wool

*wullō

052

long

*langaz

 

107

word

*wurdan

053

mid

*medjaz

 

108

yard

*gardaz ~ gardōn

054

milk

*melkaz

 

109

year

*jēran

055

moon

*mēnon

 

110

young

*jungaz

 

Notes:    In the Proto‑Germanic reconstructions, substantives are given in the nominative case, verbs in the infinitive.  However, to ensure that certain sounds are not over‑represented in this phonetic sample, such as the ‑n at the end of the infinitive, the actual forms to be compared in the modern languages will be a range of different grammatical and morphological forms:  imperatives, presents and simple pasts, in different persons.  The exact list is in preparation.